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C, the great-grandmother and lingua franca of all programming languages, was released in 1972 – 45 years ago!

It has become one of the most widely used programming languages in history over the last few decades. It is used to create a wide range of computer programmes, such as operating systems.

If you want to learn C, I can assure you that it will not be an easy task.

C has a slightly cryptic syntax that takes some time to learn. However, once you've gotten past that, learning the language is considered relatively simple.

What's also great about learning C is that once you've mastered it, it's much easier to begin learning another language.

Because C has been around for so long, it has had a strong influence on a number of other programming languages. There will be familiar bits and pieces in C# and C++, Java, JavaScript, PHP, and Python, for example.

What C is used for:

  • Operating systems and system tools
  • Game development
  • Advanced computation and graphics
  • Compilers
  • Enterprise software

Should you learn C?

C is not the most popular or trendy programming language. However, it is a solid player in the field with a longer history than most still in use programming languages.

Learning C will provide you with a good overview of the evolution of programming over the last 40 years or so. There were plenty of developers who used C before the Internet existed.

One significant disadvantage of C is that it is somewhat difficult to learn for beginners.

As a result, if you're looking for the best first programming language to learn, I'd recommend starting with a higher-level language like Python.

High-level programming languages are less difficult to "read." That means you can spend less time understanding how a single programming language works and more time learning the fundamentals of programming.



C# (pronounced C-sharp) is a programming language that was created by Microsoft to run on their.NET framework. It is based on C and C++.

C# was created with the intention of being simple to learn and use. As a result, it is a simple language to begin with.

C# is a high-level language, which means it reads similarly to English. Furthermore, unlike C++, it abstracts away many of the complex tasks required to ensure that the computer can deal with your code.

However, it is still not as high-level as, say, Python – and thus not as simple for a beginner to learn.

What C# is used for:

  • Game development (Unity)
  • Desktop applications (Microsoft, Windows)
  • Web services
  • Web applications

Should you learn C#?

C# is Microsoft's primary programming language for creating software and programmes. If you want to create applications for the Microsoft platform, C# is the language to learn.

Game development is another popular application for C#. C# is an excellent choice if you want to work in the gaming industry. It's the language of choice for creating games with the Unity game engine, for example.



C++ is built on C, the undisputed dinosaur of programming languages that is still in use today.

C++ is a powerful, high-performance programming language, but it is rather low-level. Low-level programming languages employ a lower level of abstraction, which makes the code more difficult to "read."

Learning a low-level language necessitates more time spent on comprehending how the language works. That means you'll have less time to learn the fundamentals of computer programming in general.

In addition, if you're writing an app from scratch in C++, you'll need to write a lot of code. Projects written in C++, on the other hand, are frequently more difficult to maintain and manage. Things will be much easier if you work with a large team of developers.

C++, on the other hand, is extremely scalable and efficient. C++ is commonly used in resource-intensive programmes, such as some of the most beautiful 3D games you've ever seen.

What C++ is used for:

  • Desktop applications and software
  • Mobile apps
  • Game engines and games
  • Web applications

Should you learn C++?

If you’re interested in learning C++, remember that it’s a very complex language to learn. Make sure you have a well-rounded mentor to support you along the way.

If you want to take on big projects and have a lot of control of how the programs execute, C++ is most likely a good choice. Even more so if you already know C – that’ll be somewhat of a prerequisite for learning C++ anyways.

Once you master C++, learning other programming languages will be much easier.



Java is one of the world's most popular and widely used programming languages.

Java can be used for a wide range of projects, from developing Android smartphone apps to creating complex desktop applications.

At the time of writing, Java is ranked third in the TIOBE Index, which ranks programming languages based on how frequently people search for them on the most popular search engines.

The fundamentals of Java are derived from C++, but Java is easier to learn and use, particularly for beginners.

For example, one of the fundamental ideas that the developers of Java had was to create a programming language that would allow their code to run on two completely different devices. That is where the Java slogan comes from: "write once, run anywhere."

Having said that, Java is widely used across all platforms, operating systems, and devices. Java's adaptability and flexibility make it one of the most in-demand and well-paid programming languages in the world.

What Java is used for:

  • Mobile development (Android)
  • Desktop software (cross-platform)
  • Game development
  • Big data technology

Should you learn Java?

Because of its versatility, Java could be a good option if you're not sure what you want to accomplish with coding.

Overall, Java is a valuable skill to have when looking for your first developer job.

Other programming languages, on the other hand, are more beginner-friendly and require less code to create an entire app from scratch. You could experiment with Python or Ruby, for example.

Java is also the most useful programming language for developing Android mobile applications.



JavaScript is the Web programming language, not to be confused with Java. It gives websites new life by making them more interactive, interesting to use, and user-friendly.

JavaScript is now used on almost every web page you visit on a daily basis.

Needless to say, it is one of the most widely used web development languages as well as one of the most powerful programming languages available. As a result, JavaScript is a valuable skill in today's job market.

Various frameworks and libraries, such as AngularJS, jQuery, and React, make using JavaScript for front-end development more efficient and interesting.

JavaScript is a client-side language, which means the code is run on the user's browser.

It can, however, be used as a server-side language with new technologies such as Node.js. Because of the increased versatility, JavaScript becomes even more powerful, eventually transforming it into a full-stack language.

What JavaScript is used for:

  • Front-end web development
  • Back-end web development (Node.js)
  • Mobile apps with React Native

Should you learn JavaScript?

You must learn JavaScript at some point if you want to become a front-end web developer. You simply cannot create a full-fledged website without it.

When you combine JavaScript with HTML and CSS, you'll have a complete portfolio of skills to land your first front-end developer job!

Furthermore, JavaScript is currently one of the "hottest" and best programming languages for web development.

As a result, once you've mastered JavaScript, you'll have no trouble finding work. Its popularity appears to be growing, with new front-end frameworks appearing seemingly out of nowhere on a regular basis.



Apple's primary programming language for Mac OS X and iOS is Objective-C.

Objective-C, which was first developed in the 1980s, has since gained traction in tandem with the growing popularity of iOS.

Objective-C is a powerful and adaptable programming language built on the C programming language. However, for beginners, it is not the easiest programming language to learn.

Despite the fact that Objective-C is the most useful programming language for Apple devices, the general trend in app development for Apple devices is towards Swift.

We'll have to wait and see what happens with Objective-C in the future, but for the time being, it's a valuable and necessary programming language to learn for iOS development.

What Objective-C is used for:

  • Mobile development (iOS)

Should you learn Objective-C?

If you want to create apps for the App Store, Objective-C is a necessary skill you need to learn.

When you start learning Objective-C, be prepared to learn Swift, too. The combination of these two programming languages will give you solid skill set for iOS development for a long time.



Perl is a high-level scripting language that was introduced in 1987 and has since evolved into a small family of two distinct languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.

Perl was designed to be used for text processing and manipulation, but it has since found uses ranging from web development to system administration.

Perl has evolved over time into a powerful tool that can be used on almost any operating system on the planet. As a result, it's also known as the "Swiss army knife" of computer languages.

Perl borrows the best features of other programming languages, such as C. It's also comparable to PHP or Python to some extent.

In contrast to Python, Perl typically provides multiple solutions to a single problem. In this regard, it is similar to Ruby in that there is no single best way to solve a specific problem.

If you're a beginner programmer, keep in mind that Perl, like any other programming language, has a few intimidating features.

It's well-known, for example, for its excessive use of perplexing symbols in its syntax. As a result, the code may appear intimidating to a beginner at first glance.

What Perl is used for:

  • Network programming
  • GUI development
  • Web development

Should you learn Perl?

Perl is a versatile and powerful programming language. It's not that difficult to learn once you get the hang of it.

However, if you want to work as a developer in the future, make sure your prospective employers use Perl.

Because Perl is not the most popular programming language, you may have difficulty finding a company where you'd like to work as a Perl developer.



PHP is a server-side scripting language used to create HTML-based web pages.

It's a relatively simple language for new developers to learn, making it one of the most popular programming languages available. In fact, PHP is now used by 80 percent of the top ten million websites.

Surprisingly, PHP was never intended to be a programming language in the first place. It was originally designed to be a set of tools to assist its creator, Rasmus Lerdorf, in maintaining his Personal Home Page (PHP).

Aside from that, PHP has since become one of the most popular scripting languages on the Internet.

PHP, like Python and Perl, is a server-side language that can create login pages, photo galleries, discussion forums, and much more.

PHP-powered websites include some well-known favourites such as WordPress, Facebook, and Tumblr.

What PHP is used for:

  • Back-end web development
  • WordPress development

Should you learn PHP?

PHP is an excellent choice for a beginning programmer because it is simple to learn.

PHP is also the most useful programming language for WordPress development.

If you want to work as a freelance web developer, PHP is a good choice: PHP is frequently used by WordPress and other content management systems.



Python is one of the most user-friendly programming languages available. If you're just getting started with coding, it's ideal for learning the fundamentals of programming.

Python is simple to learn because it reads similarly to English. As a result, because the language is so intuitive and clean, you don't have to spend as much time understanding how it works.

This means you can devote more time to learning about programming and the fundamentals of coding in general.

Furthermore, Python is a versatile programming language that can be used for a variety of different coding projects, such as

  • Data mining and visualisation
  • Machine learning
  • Web applications
  • Game development etc.

What Python is used for:

  • Back-end web development (with frameworks like Django and Flask)
  • Game development
  • Data visualization
  • Data analysis
  • Machine learning
  • Artificial intelligence

Should you learn Python?

Python is an excellent choice if you want to see results quickly and build meaningful projects from the start. You will have no trouble finding useful Python learning resources online.

You will never be alone. Python's kin will be cared for by a strong and supportive community.

So, if the road gets rocky, you can rely on Q&A sites like StackOverFlow for assistance.

I understand that learning programming can be intimidating, and it can be difficult to know what you want to do in the future.

Python allows you to create so many different projects, ranging from data mining to game development, that you can begin learning it and see what you like best as you progress.

Check out my full review of Python Crash Course for a jump-start into learning Python. It was my first coding book, and it taught me everything I needed to know to begin working full-time in web development.



Ruby is a high-level, multi-purpose programming language that was first introduced in 1995.

It's one of the most enjoyable and creative programming languages to use because you'll almost always find multiple solutions to a given problem.

Learning Ruby will undoubtedly reward you with a steep learning curve and the ability to see results quickly. For example, the Ruby on Rails framework allows you to create a web application from scratch in a surprisingly short amount of time.

As a result, among startups and small businesses, Ruby is the most useful programming language for launching web apps as quickly as possible.

What Ruby is used for:

  • Back-end web development

Should you learn Ruby?

If you want to make quick progress and build an entire application from scratch (even if it's just for yourself), Ruby is the best programming language to use.

When combined with the Rails framework, you can create a web app much faster than you expected.

Ruby is especially popular among small tech companies. So, if that's the industry you want to work in someday, Ruby could be a good first programming language to learn.

To be certain about job market demand, do some online research and find out which programming languages your potential future employers use.

If you want to learn Ruby and Rails as a beginner, I recommend The Complete Ruby on Rails Developer Course on Udemy. It was my first Ruby course, and I thoroughly enjoyed it. Over 50,000 students can't all be wrong, can they?



Apple created their own programming language, now known as Swift, in 2014. Prior to that, Objective-C was the de facto language for iOS development.

As a result, Swift is aimed at iOS and OS X developers, providing them with the tools they need to create the next big thing in the app market.

Given the high demand for mobile apps, it's no surprise that Swift rose to prominence quickly. It scales well and is quick. Furthermore, because Swift is heavily influenced by Ruby and Python, it is very user-friendly and simple to learn.

However, because Swift is a relative newcomer in comparison to other languages, the Swift support community may be a little smaller than for the more established languages in the group. But, as with any other language, it is simply a matter of time.

What Swift is used for:

  • Mobile app development (for iOS devices)

Should you learn Swift?

If you want to create native apps for Mac OS or iOS, Swift is your weapon of choice. Swift can be a good investment if your long-term goals are related to iOS development, as Apple's future appears to be quite promising at the moment.

In that case, pairing Swift with Objective-C is probably the best way to go, because understanding Objective-C code will almost certainly be required of a serious iOS developer.

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